The Eiffel Tower is situated in the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. The French name for the Eiffel Tower is La Tour Eiffel, it also has the nickname La dame de fer which means the iron lady. The Eiffel Tower was named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel.The Eiffel Tower was built by the Gustave’s company. The Statue of Liberty was also built by the Gustava’s company. The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall. Because of the addition of the aerial atop the Eiffel Tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Eiffel Tower is the best tourist spot in Paris.
Eiffel Tower is one of the best tourist spot in Paris. It is rated as the top visited place in year 2015 also Eiffel Tower is the best tourist attraction in Paris. Today, the Eiffel Tower, continues to play an important role in television and radio broadcasts, and is also considered an architectural wonder. Eiffel tower is the most viewed wonder across the world. The tower is the tallest structure in Paris 6.98 million people ascended it in 2011. Eiffel tower received its 250 millionth visitor in 2010. Eiffel Tower tourism increases the number of tourists from all over the world. Eiffel Tower Tourism is also listed in top of the list of honeymoon couples. Eiffel Tower is top tourist attraction in Paris.
Introduction – Eiffel Tower
Eiffel tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second. The third level observatory’s upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground, the highest accessible to the public in the European Union. Eiffel Tower is the best tourist place in the World.
View of Eiffel Tower in moon light
Today Eiffel tower become the symbol and main attraction point of the Paris tourism. Nobody even can’t imagine Paris Tourism without Eiffel Tower visit. If you are in Paris then you can see the top of the Tower from every roof of the Paris. It is an amazing feeling to view the Tower in the night. There is a huge lightening system in the Eiffel Tower that increases the beauty of this tower. Eiffel Tower is the most visited tourist spot in Paris, France.
Eiffel Tower in the evening
It is very beautiful to visit the Eiffel Tower in the evening when sun sets the beauty of the Eiffel Tower increases. As the light of the sun become low the lights of the Eiffel Tower become high. Eiffel Tower is the top holiday spot in Paris, France.
Design structure and construction of Eiffel Tower
The construction of the tower completed in two years. Each one of the year about 12,000 iron pieces were designed. The Eiffel Tower is 320 metres (1050 feet) in height and it is the tallest man made structure in the world history. Even in the early time there was no such facilities available but the people at that time was having out of box mind. They have much of the skills to build such architectures. The Eiffel Tower is made up of iron pillars and weighs around 10000 tonnes. After every 7 years around 50 tonnes of paint are added to the Eiffel Tower to protect it from rust and other climatic conditions. The design of the Eiffel Tower is made to make it wind resistant. Temperature also alters the height of the Eiffel Tower by up to 6 inches (15 centimetres). Millions of people climb the Eiffel Tower as per Paris Tourism survey every year, and Eiffel Tower numbered over 250 million visitors since its opening and still continuing. You couldn’t possibly visit Paris without seeing the Eiffel Tower. Eiffel Tower is the best holiday spot in Paris, France.
The great thing about this article is that it’s not a simple article about a destination, it’s a written documentary, every one of us have seen the Eiffel tower before, either by visiting it personally and physically or by watching it in one of the many documentary’s and films made about it, but even though, there is still a infinite number of amazing information’s that you didn’t know, so prepare yourself, and be ready to travel to the magical city capital of romance, home of the industrial revolution, and one of the most modern mesmerizing and famous monument ever created by mankind. Eiffel Tower is the top tourist spot in Paris, France.
The Eiffel Tower or “la tour Eiffel in French” is a wrought iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. The name was given after the young engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Constructed in 1889 it was aimed to be the main monument to celebrate the 1889 World’s Fair, it was initially criticized by some of France’s most brilliant and famous artists and intellectuals for Eiffel Tower design and construction materiel which was hideous in their opinion, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world, with 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. So let’s dive deeper into this incredible monument that will change the world for ever in some way, for this we shall not travel in space but rather in Time back to 1889. Eiffel Tower is the top one day tourist spot in Paris, France.
If we talk about the design of the Eiffel Tower so it was the product of Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, these two senior engineers were working for the “Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel”, and after discussing about an appropriate centrepiece was planned 1889 “Exposition Universelle”, a world’s fair to memorize the centennial of the French Revolution anniversary. Eiffel Tower relatively acknowledged that inspiration, for a tower was sourced from the Latting Observatory constructed in New York City in 1853. In May 1884, working at home Koechlindraw a sketch of their idea labelled by him as “a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals”. Eiffel showed little enthusiasm at first, however he did agree for further studies to be made, and the two engineers then asked Stephen Sauvestre, he was the head of company’s architectural department, to participate to the design. Sauvestre, enriched the sketch by some decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, and other flourishes. Eiffel Tower is the best one day holiday spot in Paris, France.
The new iron pillar found its way to the demanding Eiffel heart, that he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier, and Sauvestre had taken out, and the design was displayed at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the new company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the “Société des IngénieursCivils”; after deliberating the technical difficulties and highlighting the practical usages of the tower, he finished his speech by saying the tower would symbolise “Not only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industry and Science in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be built as an expression of France’s gratitude”.
Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was chosen as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy declared an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which effectively made the selection of Eiffel’s design a inevitable decision, as admissions had to include a study for a 300 m (980 ft.) four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars. On the 12th of May, a commission was charged to study Eiffel’s scheme and its rivals, which a month later conclude that all the applications but Eiffel’s were either impractical or lacking in details.
After various debates in regard of the exact site of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887. This was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, and arranged him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs almost the quarter of the expected 6.5 million francs, in exchange, Eiffel was to collect all revenue from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years. He later created a separate company to be in charge of the tower, placing up half the necessary capital himself. Eiffel Tower is the top tourist attraction in Paris, France.
So who’s precisely “himself” Alexandre Gustave Eiffel is a French civil engineer and architect. A graduate of the prominent “ÉcoleCentrale des Arts et Manufactures of France”, he build a reputation for himself, and become one of the best names in the industry, with many bridges for the French railway network, most famously the “Garabit viaduct”. Beside his best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, and his contribution to building the Statue of Liberty in New York. After his retirement from engineering, Eiffel dedicated his time on research into meteorology and aerodynamics and achieving significant contributions in both fields.
Gustave Eiffel was born in France, in the Côte-d’Or, the first child of Catherine-Mélanie (née Moneuse) and Alexandre Bonickhausendit Eiffel. He was a descendant of Jean-René Bönickhausen, who had emigrated from the German town of Marmagen and settled in Paris at the beginning of the 18th century. The family adopted the name Eiffel as a reference to the Eifel Mountains in the area of their origin. Although the family always used the name Eiffel, Gustave’s name was registered at birth as Bonickhausendit Eiffel, and not officially changed to Eiffel till 1880.
At the time of Gustave’s birth his father, an ex-soldier, who was working as a supervisor for the French Army. But after his birth his mother unmitigated a charcoal business she had taken from her parents to embrace a coal-distribution company, and soon after that his father gave up his work to support her. Due to his mother’s business requirement, Gustave spent his babyhood living with his grandmother. The business was adequately successful for Catherine Eiffel to sell it in 1843 and retire on the incomes. Eiffel was as far away as possible from being studious child, he considered his classes at the “LycéeRoya” in Dijon to be boring and a waste of time, even though in his final two years, influenced by his teachers for history and literature, he started to studying seriously, and he succeeded his baccalaureates in humanities and science. A significant part in his education was played by his uncle, Jean-Baptiste Mollerat, who had invented a method for distilling vinegar and had an important large chemical works near Dijon, and one of his uncle’s friends, the chemist Michel Perret. The two men spent a lot of time with the young Eiffel, schooling him about everything from chemistry and mining to theology and philosophy. Eiffel went on to attend the “Collège Sainte-Barbe” in Paris, to get ready for the challenging admission exams set by engineering colleges in France, and qualified for entrance to two of the most prestigious schools – “Écolepolytechnique” and “ÉcoleCentrale des Arts et Manufactures” – and finally entered the second. All the way through his second year he chose to major in chemistry, and graduated ranking at 13th place out of 80 candidates in 1855. This was the year that Paris hosted the second World’s Fair, and Eiffel was bought a season ticket by his mother. Currently, Eiffel Tower is the world’s best tourist spot.
The suggested tower had been a subject of disagreement, drawing criticism from persons who did not believe it was achievable and others who complained on artistic bases. These objections were the subject of a long-standing debate in France about the association between architecture and engineering. It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars a “Committee of Three Hundred” was made, led by the noticeable architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most significant figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called “Artists against the Eiffel Tower” was referred to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Charles Alphand, and it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: “We, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name of slighted French taste, against the erection … of this useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower … To bring our arguments home, imagine for a moment a giddy, ridiculous tower dominating Paris like a gigantic black smokestack, crushing under its barbaric bulk Notre Dame, the Tour Saint-Jacques, the Louvre, the Dome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliated monuments will disappear in this ghastly dream. And for twenty years … we shall see stretching like a blot of ink the hateful shadow of the hateful column of bolted sheet metal.”
Gustave Eiffel replied to these criticize by relating his tower to the Egyptian pyramids: “My tower will be the tallest edifice ever erected by man. Will it not also be grandiose in its way? And why would something admirable in Egypt become hideous and ridiculous in Paris? These criticisms were also replied about by Édouard Lockroy in a letter of support written to Alphand, sarcastically saying, “Judging by the stately swell of the rhythms, the beauty of the metaphors, the elegance of its delicate and precise style, one can tell this protest is the result of collaboration of the most famous writers and poets of our time”, explaining that the criticism was irrelevant since the project had been decided months earlier, and the making of the tower was already under way. Currently, Eiffel Tower is the top holiday spot in Paris, France.
Certainly, Garnier was a member of the Tower Commission that had inspected the different proposals, and had raised no objection. Eiffel was also calm, indicating out to a journalist that it was at the wrong time premature to arbiter the outcome of the tower solely on the basis of the sketches, that the Champ de Mars was far enough from the monuments cited in the protest for there to be little risk of the tower overpowering them, and putting the artistic argument for the tower: “Do not the laws of natural forces always conform to the secret laws of harmony?”
Some of the campaigners distorted their views when the tower was built, others persisted unmoved. Guy de Maupassant purportedly had lunch in the tower’s restaurant every day because it was the only place in Paris where the tower was not visible. By 1918, it had become an icon of Paris and of France after Guillaume Apollinaire wrote a nationalist poem in the figure of the Eiffel Tower (a calligram) to express his circumstances of mind about the war against Germany. Nowadays, it is commonly considered to be an extraordinary piece of structural art, and is frequently contained in films and literature.
Even with all the protest the construction went smooth and it only took two years, another point to prove the genius of Gustav Eiffel. The work on the foundations started on 28 January 1887. Those for the east and south legs were clear-cut, with every leg standing on four 2m (6.6 ft.) concrete slabs, one for each of the main supports of each leg. The west and north legs, being nearer to the river Seine, were more problematical, each slab necessary two piles fixed by using compressed-air caissons 15m (49 ft.) long and 6m (20 ft.) in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m (72ft.) to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m (20 ft.) dense. Each of these slabs braced a block of limestone with an inclined upper to endure a supporting shoe for the metalwork.
Each shoe was fixed to the stonework by a pair of bolts 10 cm (4 in) in diameter and 7.5 m (25 ft.) long. The foundations were finished on 30 June, and the structure of the ironwork began. The visible work on-site was perfected by the huge amount of exacting elementary work that happened behind the scenes. The design office created 1,700 general drawings and 3,629 meticulously detailed drawings of the 18,038 different fragments required. The mission of drawing the parts was complex due to the difficult angles involved in the design and the amount of precision required. The location of rivet holes was specified to within 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) and angles worked out to one second of arc. The completed components, several already rapt together into sub-assemblies, arrived on horse-drawn wagons from a factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and were initially bolted together, with the bolts being substituted with rivets as construction advanced. No piercing or modelling was done on location, if any fragment did not fit; it was conducted back to the factory for adjustment. In all, 18,038 parts were joined together consuming 2.5 million rivets.
At first the limbs were built as cantilevers, but about halfway to the first level, assembly was suspended in order to create a substantial wooden scaffold. This renewed concerns about the structural integrity of the tower, and dramatic headlines such as “Eiffel Suicide!” and “Gustave Eiffel Has Gone Mad: He Has Been Confined in an Asylum” appeared in the tabloid press. At this phase, a small “creeper” winch planned to move up the tower was installed in each leg. They made use of the guides for the lifts which were to be fitted in the four legs. The precarious step of fitting together the legs at the first level was accomplished by the end of March 1888. Though the metalwork had been set with the greatest devotion to detail, provision had been prepared to carry out small alterations in order to accurately align the legs; hydraulic jacks were trim to the shoes at the base of every leg, able of applying a pressure of 800 tonnes, and the legs were deliberately built at a faintly sharper angle than needed, being supported by sandboxes on the framework. Although the assembly involved 300 on-site employees, only one person died thanks to Eiffel’s strict safety measures and the use of movable walkways, handrails and shades. Now-a-days, Eiffel Tower is the best tourist destination in Paris, France.
Lifts in Eiffel Tower
Arming the tower with suitable and safe passenger escalators was a key concern of the supervision commission supervision the Exposition. Although some visitors could be expected to hike to the first level, or even the second, lifts obviously had to be the foremost means of ascent. Making lifts to reach the first level was quite straightforward, the legs were wide enough at the bottom and so nearly straight that they were able to contain a straight track, and a contract was set with the French company Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape for two escalators to be fixed in the east and west legs. Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape used a pair of boundless chains with firm, articulated links to which the compartment was attached. Lead weights on some links of the upper or return sections of the chains counterbalanced most of the car’s weight. The compartment was pushed up from below, not towed up from above: to avoid the chain collapsing, it was bounded in a channel. At the lowermost of the track, the chains passed around 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in) diameter sprocket wheels. Slighter sprockets at the top directed the chains. Fitting lifts to the next level was more of a challenge due to the fact that a simple track was impossible. No French company desired to assume the task. The European division of “Otis Brothers & Company” presented a proposal but this was rejected. The fair’s charter ruled out the use of any foreign material in the creation of the tower. The deadline for submissions was prolonged but still no French enterprises put themselves forward, and ultimately the deal was passed to Otis in July 1887. Otis were self-assured they would eventually be given the contract and had already proceed in creating designs.
The compartment was divided into two superimposed partition, each having space for 25 passengers, with the escalator operator lodging an external platform on the first level. Motive power was delivered by an inclined hydraulic ram 12.67 m (41 ft. 7 in) long and 96.5 cm (38.0 in) in diameter in the pylon leg with a stroke of 10.83 m (35 ft. 6 in): this moved a carriage carrying six sheaves. Five secure sheaves were mounted upper up the leg, creating an arrangement comparable to a block and tackle but performing in opposite, increasing the hit of the piston rather than the force produced. The hydraulic pressure in the driving cylinder was created by a large open reservoir on the other level. After being exhausted from the cylinder, the water was driven back up to the reservoir by two pumps in the equipment chamber at the base of the south leg. This reservoir also delivered power to the escalators to the first level. The original escalators for the ride from and to the second and third levels were supplied by Léon Edoux a pair of 81 m (266 ft.) hydraulic rams was fixed on the second level, reaching nearly mid up to the third level. One lift car was mounted on top of these rams: cables ran from the top of this car up to bundles on the third level and back down to a second car. Each car only went half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were requested to change lifts halfway by means of a short walkway. The 10-ton cars each held 65 passengers.
The arrangement of the lifts changed several times throughout the tower’s life. Given the elasticity of the cables and the time occupied to align the cars with the landings, every lift, in standard service, takes a standard time of 8 minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip, spending only an average of 1 minute and 15 seconds at each level. The average ride time between the levels take 1 minute. The original hydraulic mechanism is on public exhibition in a small museum at the base of the east and west legs. Because the mechanism requires regular oiling, lubrication and maintenance, public access is often controlled. The rope mechanism of the north tower can be seen as visitors exit the lift. Eiffel Tower is the top tourist attraction in Paris; it is listed as the top tourist spot in Paris.
Engraved names on Eiffel Tower
Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower the names of 72 most respected French scientists, engineers and mathematicians in gratitude and acknowledgement of their assistance during the building of the tower. Eiffel chose this “invocation of science” because of his distress over the artists’ protest. At the start of the 20th century, the carvings were painted over, but they were renovated in 1986–87 by the “Société Nouvelle d’exploitation de la Tour Eiffel”, a corporation functioning the tower.
Inauguration and the 1889 exposition of Eiffel Tower
The leading structural work was completed at the end of March 1889 and, on 31 March, Eiffel celebrated by leading a group of government administrators, accompanied by representatives of the press, to the top of the Eiffel Tower. Since the lifts were not yet operational, the ascent was made on foot, and took more than an hour, with Eiffel stopping regularly to enlighten various features. Most of the gathering chose to stop at the lower levels, but a few, counting the structural engineer, Émile Nouguier, the leading constructor, Jean Compagnon, the President of the City Council, and reporters from Le Figaro and Le Monde Illustré, finished the ascent. At 2:35 pm, Eiffel raised a large Tricolour to the complement of a 25-gun salute fired at the first level. There was yet work to be done, especially on the escalators and facilities, and the tower was not accessible to the public until nine days next the opening of the exposition on 6 May even then the lifts had yet not been completed. The tower was an immediate triumph with the public, and nearly 30,000 visitors made the 1,710-step climb to the top before the lifts become fully functional on 26 May. Tickets cost 2 francs for the first level, 3 for the second, and 5 for the top, with only half-price admission on Sundays, and only just by the end of the exhibition there had been 1,896,987 visitors. Now, Eiffel Tower is the best tourist attraction in Paris; it is listed as the top tourist spot in Paris; most visited tourist spot in Paris as per government and tourism surveys.
In night, the tower was light by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon sent out three beams of red, white and blue light. Two searchlights mounted on a circular rail were used to light up various buildings of the exposition. The daily opening and closing of the exposition were declared by cannon at the top. On the second level of the Eiffel Tower, the well-reputed French newspaper Le Figaro had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition, Le Figaro de la Tour, was made. There was also a pâtisserie. At the top, there was a post office where visitors might send letters and postcards as a memento of their visit. Graffitists were also supplied for sheets of paper were mounted on the walls each day for visitors to write their impressions of the tower. Gustave Eiffel described some of the responses as vraimentcurieuse (“truly curious”).
Well-known visitors to the tower included the Prince of Wales, Sarah Bernhardt, “Buffalo Bill” Cody (his Wild West show was an attraction at the exposition) and Thomas Edison. Eiffel invited Edison to his private apartment at the topmost of the tower, where Edison showed him with one of his phonographs, a new invention and one of the many highlights of the show. Edison signed the guestbook with this message – “To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.”
Eiffel had a licence for the tower to stand for 20 years. It was to be pulling apart in 1909, when its proprietorship would return to the City of Paris. The City had prearranged to tear it down but as the tower showed to be important for communication goals; it was allowed to stand even after the expiry of the permit. Eiffel put his apartment at the top of the tower to a good use to carry out meteorological observations, and also used the tower to perform experiments on the action of air resistance on falling bodies.
Events at Eiffel Tower
For the 1900 Exposition Universelle, the escalators in the east and west legs were substituted by lifts running as far as the second level built by the French firm Fives-Lille. These had a rewarding mechanism to keep the floor level as the angle of scaling altered at the first level, and were driven by an equivalent hydraulic method to the Otis lifts, although this was located at the base of the tower. Hydraulic pressure was delivered by pressurised accumulators situated close to this mechanism. At the same time the escalator in the north pillar was separate and changed by a staircase to the first level. The design of both first and second levels was improved, with the space available for visitors on the second level. The original escalator in the south pillar was detached 13 years later. On 19 October 1901, Alberto Santos-Dumont, flying his No.6 airship, won a 100,000-franc prize offered by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe for being the first individual to achieve a flight starting from St. Cloud until the Eiffel Tower and going back in a less than a half an hour. Now, Eiffel Tower is the best tourist spot in Paris for travel and tourism.
Many innovations took place at the Eiffel Tower in the early 20th century. In 1910, Father Theodor Wulf calculated radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower. He got more reading at the top than likely, by the way discovering what are known today as cosmic rays. Two years later, on4th February 1912, Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping from the first level of the tower (a height of 57 metres) to demonstrate his parachute design. In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, a radio transmitter situated in the tower jammed German radio communications, extremely hindering their progress on Paris and contributing to the Allied victory at the First Battle of the Marne. Since 1925 to 1934, lightened signs for Citroën decorated three of the tower’s sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time. In April 1935, the tower was used to do an experimental low-resolution television transmission, using a shortwave transmitter of 200 watts power. On 17 November, an improved 180-line transmitter was installed. On two separate but related events in 1925, the con artist Victor Lustig “sold” the tower for scrap metal. A year later, in February 1926, pilot Leon Collet was killed trying to fly under the tower. His aircraft became entangled in an aerial belonging to a wireless station. On 2 May 1929, a bust of Gustave Eiffel by Antoine Bourdelle was unveiled at the base of the north leg. In 1930, the tower lost the title of the world’s tallest structure when the Chrysler Building in New York City was completed. In 1938, the decorative arcade around the first level was removed. While the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were sabotaged by the French. The tower was unreachable for the public all the way through the occupation and the elevators were not fixed until 1946. In 1940, German soldiers had to climb the tower to pull the swastika, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the solid-ground. In August 1944, when the Allies were nearing Paris, Hitler give orders General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to destroy the tower along with the remaining of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. On 25 June, before the Germans had been driven out of Paris, the Nazi flag was replaced with a Tricolour by two men from the French Naval Museum, who barely beat three men led by Lucien Sarniguet, who had lowered the Tricolour on 13 June 1940 when Paris fell to the Germans.
Material used in building Eiffel Tower
The puddle iron (wrought iron) of the Eiffel Tower weighs an astonishing weight of 7,300 tons, and the accumulation of lifts, shops and antennae have taken the final weight to around 10,100 tons. As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300 tons of metal in the structure were melted down, it would fill the 125 m2base to a depth of only 6.25 cm (2.46 in), assuming the width of the metal to be 7.8 tons per cubic metre. Furthermore, a cubic box surrounding the tower (324 m x 125 m x 125 m) would hold 6,200 tons of air, weigh up virtually as much as the iron itself. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may move away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7 in) due to thermal expansion of the iron on the side that face the sun. Eiffel Tower is the best tourist spot in Paris; it is the most revenue generating site in Paris.
Wind considerations while building Eiffel Tower
When it was built, countless who were astonished by the tower’s audacious form. Eiffel was accused of aiming to create something artistic with no concern to the codes of engineering. But, Eiffel and his team – experienced bridge builders – understood the critical importance of wind forces, and recognised that if they were going to build the highest structure in the world, they must be sure it could withstand them. In an interview with the newspaper Le Temps published on 14 February 1887, Eiffel said: “Is it not true that the very conditions which give strength also conform to the hidden rules of harmony? … Now to what phenomenon did I have to give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument’s four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation, dictated it should be … will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.”
He used graphical methods to conclude the strength of the tower and experiential proof to interpretation for the effects of wind, rather than a mathematical equation. Deeper inspection of the tower reveals a fundamentally exponential shape. The Eiffel Tower sways by up to 9 centimetres (3.5 in) in the wind.
Accommodation at Eiffel Tower
When initially constructed, the first level had three restaurants—one French, one Russian and one Flemish—and an “Anglo-American Bar”. After the exposition reached end, the Flemish restaurant was rehabilitated to a 250-seat theatre. A walk way of 2.6-metre (8 ft 6 in) wide ran around the outside of the first level. At the top, there were laboratories for numerous experiments, and a loft set aside for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests, which is nowadays open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike figurines of Eiffel and certain of his distinguished visitants.
In May 2016, an apartment was created on the first level to lodge four competition winners during the UEFA Euro 2016 football tournament held in Paris in June. The apartment includes a kitchen, two bedrooms, a lounge, and views of Paris landmarks including the Seine, the Sacre Coeur, and the Arc de Triomphe. You will feel an amazing experience at Eiffel Tower; it is the best tourist destination in Paris, France.
Maintenance of Eiffel Tower
For the reason that of its enormous height and iron width, the Conservation of the tower consist of relating 60 tons of paint each seven years to avoid it from rusting. The tower has been entirely renovated at least 19 times from the time when it was built. Lead paint was still being used as lately as 2001 when the practice was stopped out of worry for the environment.
Let’s Organizing your trip to Eiffel Tower
If we talk about Paris Tourism, then Eiffel Tower is the first name that comes into our mind. Without Eiffel Tower Paris Tourism is incomplete. Eiffel Tower Tourism provides millions of dollars to Paris tourism. The Eiffel Tower in Paris makes an unusual effort to the astonishment of visitors. Do not miss the latest futurist, interactive attraction – the Eiffel Tower Visitors Galaxy – where you can take part in the building of a virtual Eiffel Tower which you can recover later on the Internet (talking about the best travel souvenir). In conjunction with the Caisse Nationale des Monuments Historiques et des Sites, the Tower offers groups a series of conference tours, emphasising the historical importance of the monument in its time, its impact to modern metal architecture, and all the scientific and technical applications experimented and breakthrough on the Tower. If you ask anybody about the icon of tourism in Paris then Eiffel Tower is the only name. Eiffel Tower is the best tourist destination in Paris; high rated tourism spot; Eiffel Tower is the most revenue generating destination in Paris.
Group rates: The reduced rate for groups of children (minimum 20) aged < 18, is applied directly at the cash desk without any prior formality. These conditions are not applicable on Saturdays, Sundays and French national holidays. For groups of adults, there is a special rate according to the season. This information is subject to changes. Make sure to verify by contacting the Eiffel tower.
Important Information about Eiffel Tower
- Address: Champ de Mars, 5 Avenue Anatole France, 75007 Paris, France
- Construction started: January 28, 1887
- Floors: 3
- Height: 301 m
- Architect: Stephen Sauvestre
- Engineers: Maurice Koechlin, Gustave Eiffel, Émile Nouguier
- Architecture firms: Barbier, Benard and Turenne, Eiffel & Cie